GDS True Triaxial Apparatus

Product Code : GDSTTA

The GDS True Triaxial Apparatus (GDSTTA) has the defining characteristic that, unlike conventional triaxial apparatus, all three principal stresses can be controlled independently, rather than just two in a conventional triaxial system. This allows a wider range of complex stress paths to be performed. This dynamic cyclic system is powered by advanced electro-mechanical actuators. 

Vertical and one horizontal axis are loaded via the dynamic actuators (axis 1 and 2), stress control is provided for the 2nd horizontal axis, (axis 3) via cell pressure.

Further Information:

Discover more dynamic triaxial testing equipment for soil testing.

Key features Benefits to the user
Stress or strain is applied to a 75mm x 75mm x 150mm sample independently on three axes: Two pairs of matched dynamic rams for axes 1 and 2, and a confining fluid provides pressure for the 3rd axis on load readings.
Ram specification: Each ram has its own internal submersible load cell and displacement transducer to ensure friction effects are minimised.
Electro-mechanical actuators as standard: Electro-mechanical actuators provide an easier to use and environmentally friendly solution for accurate testing to 5Hz. Electro-mechanical actuators do not require a hydraulic power pack to be present, hence no requirement to service a powerpack or to protect system users from noise generated by a powerpack.
Sample preparation: Full sample preparation equipment for cohesive and non-cohesive samples is provided with the system including a specially designed soil lathe for producing cuboidal samples.
Actuators

4

Axial Force Accuracy

0.1% FRO

Axial Force Accuracy

Dependent on range

Computer Interface

USB

Data Acquisition

16 Bit

Dimensions

2250mm tall, 1750mm wide, 550mm deep

Displacement Accuracy

0.1% FRO

Displacement Range

50mm per actuator (100mm per axis)

Displacement Resolution

<0.0001mm

Load Range (kN)

20 (Electro-mechanical)

Operating Frequency (Hz)

5

Power

3-Phase Power supply required: 380V-415V, 50Hz/60Hz. Maximum current capacity 64 Amp. Note: GDS provides a 3-phase power socket with neutral and earth for wall mounting.

Pressure Accuracy

Dependent on chosen pressure controller

Pressure Range (MPa)

1

Sample Sizes

75 x 75 x 150mm

 

 

Tests supported by the GDS True Triaxial Apparatus, dynamic triaxial testing equipment for soil testing :-

Axial Compression

An axial compression test determines the behaviour of geo-materials when the major load is applied in the axial direction. The specimen load and displacement is recorded while the specimen is compressed. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Axial Extension

An axial extension test determines the behaviour of geo-materials when the major load is applied in the radial direction. The specimen load and displacement is recorded while the specimen is loaded under extension. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Axial or Radial Deformation

Axial deformation is measured by a displacement transducer in all GDS systems (LVDT, LDT or digital gauge).  Radial deformation is calculated as standard by measuring the volume change to 1mm3 directly on the back pressure controller.  For direct measurements of radial strain (i.e. transducers mounted upon the sample, and direct measurements of axial strain in the same way, GDS can supply a Hall Effect local strain set or an LVDT local strain set. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Constant Head Permeability

The constant head test simply maintains a constant differential in pressure between the top and the base of the specimen (top pressure is always set higher than the base pressure). The flow is then measured on the top controller and the base controller.  Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Constant Rate of Flow Permeability

The constant rate of flow test simply maintains a constant base pressure whilst applying a constant flow through the top of the specimen. A maximum hydraulic gradient can be set which will pause the rate of flow if the pressure differential between the top and the base of the sample gets too large.  Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Continuous Infinite Volume Flow (either target or ramp)

Some geotechnical applications require the continuous flow of fluid, either under pressure control or via a rate of fluid flow.  GDS manufacture an Infinite Volume Controller (IVC). By connecting 2 GDS pressure/volume controllers in parallel, the IVC system automatically switches between them when they run out of volume thus providing a seamless supply of pressure with unlimited volume capacity.  The IVC can be used with any 2 pressure controllers from the GDS range, i.e. advanced, standard or enterprise. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Cyclic Testing, Slow

Slow cyclic testing may be performed on all GDS triaxial testing apparatus with the appropriate software modules.  The speed the cycles can be applied is determined by the performance of the system.  A standard load frame generally only used for quasi-static testing can perform cyclic testing with periods of around 5 minutes when coupled with GDSLAB control and data acquisition software. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Cyclic loading of samples under either load or strain

Cyclic loading refers to the repeated loading of a sample.  All GDS systems can imply this loading either under load control, or under strain (displacement) control.  Load control will be via feedback from the load cell and displacement control will be via the feedback from the displacement transducer.  Load and displacement control can be performed by all GDS system.  The speed of the cyclic loading depends on the frequency performance (i.e. the dynamic performance) of the system in question.  Dynamic stress control is possible, but only available on the most advanced GDS dynamic because of the additional processing required to calculate the sample area during the cycles.  Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Load Control (Dynamic)

Enables application of load to a specimen for approximately less than ten seconds, and at frequencies greater than 0.1 Hz during cyclic loading.

Load Control (Static)

Enables application of load to a specimen for tens of seconds or more, and at frequencies less than 0.1 Hz during cyclic loading. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Local Strain Measurement

Accurate determination of soil stiffness is difficult to achieve in routine laboratory testing. Conventionally, stiffness of a triaxial test specimen is based on external measurements of displacement which include a number of extraneous movements.  By placing transducers directly on the sample, accurate measurements of strain may be obtained, particularly in the small strain area of the sample loading cycle where strain dependancy of soil stiffness (stiffer at low strains) can be otherwise be masked when using external transducers.

Multi-stage Testing

The procedure for conventional triaxial tests requires three separate soil specimens to be sheared to failure under different confining pressures so that Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope can be determined and soil shear strength parameters can be obtained. An alternative procedure is the multi-stage triaxial compression test, which requires only one soil specimen to be tested at three stages of shearing with different confining pressures.


There main advantages of multi stage soil testing is the requirement for fewer soil specimens, as well as reduced testing time.  The advantage of performing the test with 3 separate samples is that if one of the samples is unsatisfactory (perhaps due to sample disturbance for example) then it is likely to be noticed when the Mohr circles are plotted, whereas this could remain unnoticed in the multi stage test. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Pore Water Volume Change

Soil testing involves the application of pressure (stress) and the resulting measurement of strain either by measuring displacements or volume change. GDS pressure/volume controllers can apply pressure and measure volume change, or alternatively can apply volume change and measure the resulting pressure. Essential for soil testing.  Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Quasi-Static (low speed/creep) Tests

Quasi-static refers to slow speed tests.  Creep tests require accurate displacements to be measurable whilst a continuous, sometimes long term loading is accurately applied. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

RAMP and CYCLE pressure or volume change (Saturation Ramp)

Saturation ramp allows you to independently increase or decrease the Cell Pressure and the Back Pressure. The saturation ramp is used to steadily change the pressures in the system either keeping a constant effective stress or change to a desired effective stress.

Static Displacement

A static displacement test involves applying and maintaining a constant displacement to the specimen. The load response can subsequently be observed. Alternatively this may refer to cases where a displacement, which may vary, is applied to a specimen for tens of seconds or more. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests

Static Load

A static load test involves applying and maintaining a constant load on the specimen. The displacement response can subsequently be observed. Alternatively this may refer to cases where a load, which may vary, is applied to a specimen for tens of seconds or more. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Stepped Loading

Stepped Loading provides a means to increase the specimen axial load, whilst maintaining a constant back pressure and measuring the back (pore) volume change. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Stress Paths

In a triaxial test, a stress path is described by any change in stress state in any direction on a sample.  To be able to perform a stress path test it is generally considered that control of both the axial stress and the radial stress is required.  With this level of control, linear paths may be controlled of either axial stress and radial stress, p and q (deviator stress), or s and t paths. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.

Standards for the GDS True Triaxial Apparatus, dynamic triaxial testing equipment for soil testing :-