Axial deformation is measured by a displacement transducer in all GDS systems (LVDT, LDT or digital gauge). Radial deformation is calculated as standard by measuring the volume change to 1mm3 directly on the back pressure controller. For direct measurements of radial strain (i.e. transducers mounted upon the sample, and direct measurements of axial strain in the same way, GDS can supply a Hall Effect local strain set or an LVDT local strain set. Please note: Some apparatus may require additional components or software modules to perform certain tests.